Experiencias emocionales negativas durante el cierre de las escuelas por COVID-19 en una muestra de estudiantes en Chile.
PDF

Palabras clave

negative emotions
schools
COVID-19
adolescent
mental health emociones negativas
escuelas
COVID-19
adolescentes
salud mental

Cómo citar

Rojas-Andrade, R., Larraguibel, M., Pi Davanzo, M., Montt, M. E., Halpern, M., & Aldunate, C. (2021). Experiencias emocionales negativas durante el cierre de las escuelas por COVID-19 en una muestra de estudiantes en Chile. Terapia Psicológica, 39(2), 273-289. https://doi.org/10.4067/s0718-48082021000200273

Resumen

Antecedentes: En el año 2019, las escuelas cerraron de forma presencial como medida de contención ante la pandemia del COVID-19, lo que implicó un cambio en los procesos tradicionales de educación y socialización entre los adolescentes. Objetivo: identificar experiencias emocionales negativas en estudiantes de tres comunas vulnerables de Región Metropolitana de Chile durante este periodo. Método: 3.570 estudiantes de 10 a 18 años pertenecientes a 50 establecimientos educacionales públicos completaron un instrumento online de evaluación de condiciones socioemocionales. El promedio de edad fue de 12,65 (D.E=1,90) y el 52,5% se identificó con el género masculino. Se analizaron los datos a través de la prueba χ2 y Análisis de Clases Latentes. Resultados: Las emociones más experimentadas fueron la soledad y el miedo. La menos frecuente fue el aburrimiento. Se encontraron cuatro tipos de experiencias emocionales:  (1) la experiencia de soledad (7%); (2) la experiencia combinada de preocupación, miedo y soledad (35,4%); (3) la experiencia generalizada de emociones negativas (9,6%) y (4) la experiencia de baja emocionalidad negativa (48,1%). Conclusiones: Los estudiantes presentan cuatro tipos de experiencias emocionales, tres de las cuales podrían alertar de un posible problema de salud mental. Estos datos deben tenerse en cuenta al planificar la respuesta sanitaria a corto y largo plazo. Conclusiones: Los estudiantes presentan cuatro tipos de experiencias emocionales, tres de las cuales podrían alertar de un posible problema de salud mental. Estos datos deben tenerse en cuenta al planificar la respuesta sanitaria a corto y largo plazo.

https://doi.org/10.4067/s0718-48082021000200273
PDF

Citas

Aldunate, C., Montenegro, A., Montt, M. E., Strasser, K., Turner, P., & Inostroza, R. (2020). Instrumento de evaluación de condiciones socioemocionales. Departamento de Educación Pública, MINEDUC. https://tinyurl.com/yckh26y8

Ato, M., López, J., & Benavente, A. (2013). Un sistema de clasificación de los diseños de investigación en psicología. Anales de psicología, 29(3), 1038–1059. https://doi.org/chxj

Boylan, J., Seli, P., Scholer, A. A., & Danckert, J. (2021). Boredom in the COVID-19 pandemic: Trait boredom proneness, the desire to act, and rule-breaking. Personality and individual differences, 171, 110387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110387

Bravo, D., Campos, D., Errazuriz, A., & Fernandez, G. (2020). Termómetro de la Salud Mental en Chile ACHS-UC.

Buonsenso, D., Roland, D., De Rose, C., Vásquez-Hoyos, P., Ramly, B., Chakakala-Chaziya, J. N., Munro, A., & González-Dambrauskas, S. (2021). Schools closures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Pediatric infectious disease journal, 40(4), e146–e150. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000003052

Chao, M., Chen, X., Liu, T., Yang, H., & Hall, B. J. (2020). Psychological distress and state boredom during the COVID-19 outbreak in China: the role of meaning in life and media use. European journal of psychotraumatology, 11(1). https://doi.org/gg4rsf

Chiao, C., Chen, Y. H., & Yi, C. C. (2019). Loneliness in young adulthood: Its intersecting forms and its association with psychological well-being and family characteristics in Northern Taiwan. PLoS ONE, 14(5), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217777

Conti, A., Clari, M., Arese, S., Bandini, B., Cavallaro, L., Mozzone, S., Vellone, E., Frigerio, S., & Campagna, S. (2020). Validation and psychometric evaluation of the Italian version of the spinal cord injury secondary conditions scale. Spinal cord, 58(4), 496–503. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41393-019-0384-z

Courtney, D., Watson, P., Battaglia, M., Mulsant, B. H., & Szatmari, P. (2020). COVID-19 impacts on child and youth anxiety and depression: challenges and opportunities. Canadian journal of psychiatry, 65(10), 688–691. https://doi.org/10.1177/0706743720935646

Dsouza, D. D., Quadros, S., Hyderabadwala, Z. J., & Mamun, M. A. (2020). Aggregated COVID-19 suicide incidences in India: Fear of COVID-19 infection is the prominent causative factor. Psychiatry research, 290, 113145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113145

Dvorsky, M. R., Breaux, R., & Becker, S. P. (2020). Finding ordinary magic in extraordinary times: child and adolescent resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. European child and adolescent psychiatry, 30, 1829–1831. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-020-01583-8

Ghosh, R., Dubey, M. J., Chatterjee, S., & Dubey, S. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 on children: Special focus on the psychosocial aspect. Minerva pediatrica, 72(3), 226–235. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4946.20.05887-9

Guessoum, S. B., Lachal, J., Radjack, R., Carretier, E., Minassian, S., Benoit, L., & Moro, M. R. (2020). Adolescent psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown. Psychiatry research, 291, 113264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113264

Hoffman, S. G. (2018). La emoción en psicoterapia. De la ciencia a la práctica. Guilford.

Johns Hopkins University, The Center for Systems Science and Engineering. (2021). Covid-19 map. Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html.

Keles, B., Leamy, M., Trainor, G., Murrells, T., & Grealish, A. (2020). A study protocol: the role of relational orientation in the relationship between social media use and mental health in adolescents. Social science protocols, 3, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.7565/ssp.2020.2803

Lee, J. (2020). Mental health effects of school closures during COVID-19. The Lancet child and adolescent health, 4(6), 421. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30109-7

Li, H. Y., Cao, H., Leung, D. Y. P., & Mak, Y. W. (2020). The psychological impacts of a covid-19 outbreak on college students in China: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113933

Luchetti, M., Lee, J. H., Aschwanden, D., Sesker, A., Strickhouser, J. E., Terracciano, A., & Sutin, A. R. (2020). The trajectory of loneliness in response to COVID-19. American Psychologist, 75(7), 897–908. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000690

Masuyama, A., Shinkawa, H., & Kubo, T. (2020). Validation and psychometric properties of the japanese version of the fear of COVID-19 scale among adolescents. International journal of mental health and addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00368-z

Mena, G. E., Martinez, P. P., Mahmud, A. S., Marquet, P. A., Buckee, C. O., & Santillana, M. (2021). Socioeconomic status determines COVID-19 incidence and related mortality in Santiago, Chile. Science, 372(6545). https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abg5298

Mertens, G., Gerritsen, L., Duijndam, S., Salemink, E., & Engelhard, I. M. (2020). Fear of the coronavirus (COVID-19): Predictors in an online study conducted in March 2020. Journal of anxiety disorders, 74(June), 102258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102258

Nelson, B. W., Pettitt, A., Flannery, J. E., & Allen, N. B. (2020). Rapid assessment of psychological and epidemiological correlates of COVID-19 concern, financial strain, and health-related behavior change in a large online sample. PLoS ONE, 15(11), e0241990. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0241990

Padmanabhanunni, A., & Pretorius, T. B. (2021). The unbearable loneliness of COVID-19: COVID-19-related correlates of loneliness in South Africa in young adults. Psychiatry research, 296, 113658. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113658

Pérez-Fuentes M., Molero, M., Martínez, Á., Martos, A., & Gázquez Linares, J. (2020). Threat of COVID-19 and emotional state during quarantine: Positive and negative affect as mediators in a cross-sectional study of the Spanish population. PLoS ONE, 15(6), e0235305. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0235305

Petersen, K. J., Qualter, P., & Humphrey, N. (2019). The application of latent class analysis for investigating population child mental health: A systematic review. Frontiers in psychology, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01214

Pizarro-Ruiz, J. P., & Ordóñez-Camblor, N. (2021). Effects of covid-19 confinement on the mental health of children and adolescents in Spain. Scientific reports, 11(1). https://doi.org/g8g5

Racine, N., Cooke, J., Eireich, R., Korczak, D., McArthur, B., & Madigan, S. (2020). Child and adolescent mental illness during COVID-19: A rapid review. Psychiatric research, 292, 113307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113307

Rozanski, A., & Kubzansky, L. D. (2005). Psychologic functioning and physical health: A paradigm of flexibility. Psychosomatic medicine, 67, S47-S53. https://doi.org/c2jbsp

Saggioro, C., Capucho, P., Lima, L., Mázala-de-Olivera, T., da Silva, L., Raony, I., Soares, E., Giestal-de-Araujo, E., Araujo, A., & Oliveira-Silva., B. (2021). COVID-19 pandemic impact on children and adolescents' mental health: Biological, environmental, and social factors. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry, 106, 110171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2020.110171

Sandín, B. (2003). El estrés: un análisis basado en el papel de los factores sociales. Revista internacional de psicología clínica y de la salud, 3(1), 141–157. https://tinyurl.com/2s48f2k4

Sandín, B. (2003b). Escalas Panas de afecto positivo y negativo para niños y adolescentes (PANASN). Revista de psicopatología y psicología clínica, 8(2), 173–182. https://doi.org/10.5944/rppc.vol.8.num.2.2003.3953

Saurabh, K., & Ranjan, S. (2020). Compliance and psychological impact of quarantine in children and adolescents due to Covid-19 pandemic. Indian journal of pediatrics, 87(7), 532–536. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020-03347-3

Schreiber, J. B. (2017). Latent class analysis: An example for reporting results. Research in social and administrative pharmacy, 13(6), 1196–1201. https://doi.org/gghfbh

Segre, G., Campi, R., Scarpellini, F., Clavenna, A., Zanetti, M., Cartabia, M., Bonati, M. (2021) Interviewing children: the impact of the COVID-19 quarantine on children’s perceived psychological distress and changes in routine. BMC Pediatr 21, 231. https://doi.org/gmbzph

Seusan, L. A. & Maradiegue, R. (2020). Educación en pausa: Una generación de niños y niñas en América Latina y el Caribe está perdiendo la escolarización debido al COVID-19. UNICEF. https://tinyurl.com/4dfpb93r

She, J., Jiang, J., Ye, L., Hu, L., Bai, C., & Song, Y. (2020). 2019 novel coronavirus of pneumonia in Wuhan, China: emerging attack and management strategies. Clinical and translational medicine, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40169-020-00271-z

Shen, K., Yang, Y., Wang, T., Zhao, D., Jiang, Y., Jin, R., Zheng, Y., Xu, B., Xie, Z., Lin, L., Shang, Y., Lu, X., Shu, S., Bai, Y., Deng, J., Lu, M., Ye, L., Wang, X., Wang, Y., & Gao, L. (2020). Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children: experts’ consensus statement. World journal of pediatrics, 16(3), 223–231. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12519-020-00343-7

Strohmeier, C., Mulé, C., & Luiselli, J. K. (2014). Social validity assessment of training methods to improve treatment integrity of special education service providers. Behavior analysis in practice, 7(1), 15–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-014-0004-5

Varga, T. V., Bu, F., Dissing, A. S., Elsenburg, L. K., Bustamante, J. J. H., Matta, J., van Zon, S. K. R., Brouwer, S., Bültmann, U., Fancourt, D., Hoeyer, K., Goldberg, M., Melchior, M., Strandberg-Larsen, K., Zins, M., Clotworthy, A., & Rod, N. H. (2021). Loneliness, worries, anxiety, and precautionary behaviours in response to the COVID-19 pandemic: A longitudinal analysis of 200,000 Western and Northern Europeans. The Lancet regional health - Europe, 2, 100020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lanepe.2020.100020

Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Mental health in the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of environmental research and public health, 113(5), 311–312. https://doi.org/10.1093/QJMED/HCAA110

World Health Organization.(2020). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) (Situation Report–88). WHO. https://tinyurl.com/yckrkctt

Zhou, S. J., Zhang, L. G., Wang, L. L., Guo, Z. C., Wang, J. Q., Chen, J. C., Liu, M., Chen, X., & Chen, J. X. (2020). Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of

SCImago Journal & Country Rank